Procedural Law 101: definition, objectives, and how it works

This is a guide to procedural law.

Here you will learn

  • What is procedural law?
  • example of procedural law
  • purpose of procedural law
  • why is it important to comply with procedural laws?
  • How procedural rules works

What is Procedural Law?

Procedural law is the branch of law that is a directory in nature. It deals with legal steps to which individuals shall comply when seeking a particular legal right against an individual or corporation in the court of law or any other organs established by law. 

Further, this law comprises the set of rules that govern the courts or any other organ established by law in dealing with disputes.

The court needs to conform to the standards set up by procedural law during civil or criminal proceedings.

These rules ensure fairness and consistency in due process.

Generally, procedural rules deal with and lay down ways and means by which substantive law can be enforced.

Example of procedural law

Any law which is procedural in nature is good if the not best example of procedural law that may include rules of civil procedures, Evidence rules, labor and employment law, probate rules, etc.

Apart from civil procedural laws, a set of criminal procedure laws apply to the federal court system as well.

Criminal procedure rules are different from civil procedure rules in that they cover matters specific to criminal trials, such as grand juries, indictments, arraignments, and notices of defense.

They also control preliminary proceedings for criminal proceedings, such as search, arrest, interrogation, etc.

Purposes of Procedural Law

The main objective of procedural law is to provide a guide to attain justice or any legal right.

Civil Procedure helps in making the availability of right clear through procedural rules. Procedural law assures individuals that the rights given by the substantial law are obtainable.

Why is it important to comply with procedural laws?

Generally, procedural rules work as a servant of substantive law.

For example, if a person commits a tort or breach of contract, tort and contract are substantive law that provides only the rights and duties of individuals.

Therefore, in order for that person to claim his right on tort or contract, he must invoke procedural rules into play.

Procedural law is there to guide him and the courts toward his right.

Procedural rules at the Pre-trial Stage

The observance of procedural rules is required even before the trial.

It is important to know, understand and observe a procedural aspect of the law right from the beginning.

At the pre-trial stage, procedural laws set the rules on preliminary matters to comply with before going to court like;

  • issuing of a demand letter,
  • parties to sue,
  • where to sue (jurisdiction of courts)
  • form and contents of documents to be used (pleadings),
  • the time limitation for commencing a certain legal process example, time for the institution of the suit.

Procedural rules at Trial Stage

Procedural law proceeds to serve substantive law even at the trial stage.

  • Here procedural rules act as a conduit for accessing legal rights by providing rules on who may commence the proceedings
  • How the evidence should be adduced before the court
  • Examination of witness.
  • how attendance of the parties and witnesses before the court can be procured (summons)
  • It guides how proceedings are to be recorded
  • it provides the framework for hearing of cases i.e. from pleadings stage, hearing stage, and judgment stage.
  • It guides how proceedings are to be recorded.

Procedural rules at the Post-Trial Stage

Individuals enjoy the service of procedural rules even after the trial.

During this stage, procedural rules is working by guiding parties on how to execute and enforce the court’s judgments and decrees, how a winner of the case can claim the refund of the cost of the case (Bill of cost),

It guides on how the aggrieved party can seek remedies either through appeal, review, or revision.

It is also provided on how these remedies can be exhausted.

Final Remarks

In the case of Iron and Steelwares Ltd. V. C.W. Martyr & Co. (1956) 23 E.A.C.A 175 on page 177 court stated that “procedural law is intended to serve as the hand-maidens of justice, not to defeat it.”

This means, in the course of seeking justice, an individual might fail to comply with certain rules of procedure; In this case, that individual must suffer legal consequences.

For Example, if an individual failed to comply with the rules of pleadings then his case will be struck out, in the light of the above court statement; the individual may amend the pleading and reinstitute his case.

In other words, in the interest of justice, procedural rules provide for remedying procedures in case an individual or court has failed to comply with a prescribed legal procedure.

Isack Kimaro
Isack Kimaro

Editor-in-chief and founder of sherianajamii.com. Holder of Bachelor of Laws (LL.B) and Post Graduate Diploma in Legal Practice. Lawyer by profession and blogger by passion